You ask some very good questions. For me, both of your questions about how many times to turn the ball in the spinner, and the progression of the grits to use, depends on my intent for that particular ball. If I am resurfacing a ball, I will start with a fresh 500 grit abralon pad and use it on four sides of the ball in this order: 1. ball lying with the grip center line on the horizontal equator with the grips on the right, 2. ball lying with the grip center line on the horizontal equator with the grips on the left, 3. ball lying with the grip center line perpendicular to the floor with the thumb hole on the top, and finally, 4. ball lying with the grip center line perpendicualr to the floor with the finger holes on the top. This is called surfacing the ball on four sides. The order is important because it allows you to surface with the track first, and across the track last.
Unless I specifically want to try to achieve a different reaction, I usually work my way up from 500 to 1000, to 2000 and so on util I get to the final surface I want. If I just want to "freshen up" the surface, I'll just go to steps 3 and 4, using only the final pad. I do this pretty much after each use for balls without polish.
There are indeed different types of polishes. Their use depends on personal preference. I use the Motiv Power Gel Polish for a light polish, and Powerhouse Factory Polish for a heavy polish. The most important thing is that you find one or two that are right for you and stick with them so that you can achieve consistent results from one time to the next.
As to the different kind of abrasives, I always use abralon pads for consistency. A new 1000 abralon pad is always the same, etc. The age of the pad, of course, makes a difference in the amount of abrasion, so make sure that you make a note to yourself as to the age of the final pads so that you can duplicate the surface accurately next time. The one exception, for me, is that I usually carry a green Scotchbrite pad in my bag far light hand-scuffing during practice before a tournament if necessary (I rarely end up using them).
Finally, I alway use abralon pads wet for the simple reason that it holds down the dust particles that you end up breathing as you are surfacing the ball. Speaking as someone with asthma, this is literally a life-saver for me.
I hope this helps you on your quest for answers to ball surfaces. Please let me know if you have any other questions.